The etiology and mechanism of liver cancer development, as well as other cancers, are not sufficient determined. The influence of climate and geography, the nature of food, medical treatment are the factors of risk. The presence of aflatoxin in food products (carcinogenic mitoksin) sometimes affects the occurrence of primary liver cancer. Angiosarcoma of the liver is sometimes associated with endogenous anabolic hormones. Parasitic (amoebiasis, schistosomiasis, Opisthorchiasis, etc.) and viral diseases (viral hepatitis B, which is considered to be caused at least 80% of all cases of hepatocellular carcinoma), liver cirrhosis irrelatively of its reason may favour the occurrence of primary liver cancer.

There is a family predisposition to the liver cancer development, as well as a clear link between alcoholic cirrhosis and primary liver cancer. In present-day world, primary liver cancer in patients with alcoholism, in 80-90% of the cases develops against the background of gin-drinker’s liver.